Author(s): Disha L. Barad, Urvi J. Chotaliya, Nilesh K. Patel


DOI: 10.52711/2231-5675.2022.00032   

Address: Disha L. Barad, Urvi J. Chotaliya, Nilesh K. Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance, B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College, Polytechnic Campus, Near Aji Dem, Bhavnagar Road, Rajkot - 360003 Gujarat, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 12,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2022

Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is widely used in food products and can be found in sauces, icings, and chewing gums as well as in personal care products such as pharmaceutical tablets and toothpaste. Tio2 particle added as a whitening agent to confectionary products, that is, chewing gum, candies, chocolate, and snacks. Titanium dioxide is found naturally in various crystal phases. It exists in different crystal structures. anatase, rutile, and brookite, or a mixture of these. The major routes of TiO2 NP exposure that have toxicological relevance in humans are inhalation, dermal, and oral exposure. for characterization of particle size, size distribution, crystallinity, and concentration of Tio2 particles were first extracted using an acid digestion method from food and separation, various analytical methods were applied. The present study focus on the analyzes qualitative and quantitative trace element by using some analytical methods. TiO2 levels of investigated foods were determined by UV Spectroscopy, Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Visible diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Gas volumetry, Laser diffraction, Laser droppler electrophorosis, FT-Raman, Spectroscopic analysis.

Cite this article:
Disha L. Barad, Urvi J. Chotaliya, Nilesh K. Patel. A Brief Review on Titanium Dioxide. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2022; 12(3):187-6. doi: 10.52711/2231-5675.2022.00032

Disha L. Barad, Urvi J. Chotaliya, Nilesh K. Patel. A Brief Review on Titanium Dioxide. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2022; 12(3):187-6. doi: 10.52711/2231-5675.2022.00032   Available on:

1.    Titanium Dioxide. 2021; 12(August). Available on
2.    Muriel M, Bernard H. Titanium Dioxide As A Food Additive. Intech Open Science. 2017; July (26) 10.5772/intechopen.68883
3.    Verleysen E, Waegeneers N. et al. Physicochemical Characterization of the Pristine E171 Food Additive by Standardized and Validated Methods. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10: 592.
4.    Adriana-Berenice PV, Alberto PB, et al. Toxic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cells. Molecular & Cellular Toxicology. 2020; 16: 321–330.
5.    Bogdan J, Jackowska-Tracz A, et al. Chances and limitations of nanosized titanium dioxide practical application in view of its physicochemical properties. Nanoscale Research Letters. (2015); 10: 57.
6.    G.R. Chatwal. Pharmaceutical Chemistry – Inorganic Vol – I. Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi. 2019; 5: 191.
7.    Zhangjian Chen, Di Zhou. Hepatotoxicity and the role of the gut-liver axis in rats after oral administration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2019; Dec 27; 16(1):48.
8.    Sungur S, Kaya P, et al. Determination of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in various foods. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2020; Dec13(4): 260-267.
9.    Titanium Dioxide Powder. 2021; 15(August). Available on
10.    Structure and Formula of TiO2. 2021; 17(August). Available on
11.    Dudefoi W, Terrisse H. Criteria to define a more relevant reference sample of titanium dioxide in the context of food a multiscale approach. Food Additives Contaminants Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2017; May34(5): 653-665.
12.    Kim N., Kim C., et al., “Determination and Identification of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Confectionery Foods, Marketed in South Korea, Using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy.”, Food Additive Contaminants Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, 2018 Jul; 35(7):1238-1246.
13.    Ashok B. Patel, Avadhi R. Bundheliya, Amitkumar J. Vyas, Nilesh K. Patel, Ajay I. Patel, Arvind N. Lumbhani. A Review on Metal Impurities in Pharmaceuticals. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2021; 11(3):212-2.
14.    Dr Basma damiri, Dr Abdel Fattah R. Hasan PhD. Evalution Of Titanium Dioxide Level in Certain Traditional Food in The West BanK. An Najah National University Faculty of Graduates Studies, 2018 oct.
15.    Bischoff NS de Kok, TM Sijm DTHM. Possible Adverse Effects of Food Additive E171 (Titanium Dioxide) Related to Particle Specific Human Toxicity Including the Immune System. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020 Dec; 28; 22(1):207.
16.    Pardon N., Omobola O., “Synthetic Method of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: A Review.”, Intech Open 2018 Nov; 5 doi: 10.5772/intechopen.75425.
17.    The crystal structure of TiO2. 2021; 18(August). Available on
18.    Christianto P, PhD. Estimation Of Ingested Nano-Titanium Dioxide Among Healthy Adults and Its Association with Intestinal Permeability and Inflammation. B.S. Monash University Malaysia (2014) And M.S. University of Massachusetts Lowell 2016.
19.    The additive is commonly found in Toothpaste. 2021; 1(September). Available on .
20.    TiO2 is commonly used as a pigment to bring a bright and smooth white appearance to pastries or confectionary or opacify yogurt or ice cream 2021; 22(August). Available on
21.    Dunkin donuts removed nano titanium dioxide from their doughnuts in 2015. 2021; 5(September). Available on
22.    Shi H, Magaye R, et al. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013; (10) 15.
23.    Musial J Krakowiak R, Mlynarczyk DT, et al. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Food and Personal Care Products-What Do We Know about Their Safety? Nanomaterials (Basel). 2020; 10(6):1110.
24.    Reni Mullukattil Lukose. Toxic Effect of Nanoparticles of Metals (Pb, Cd, Ag, Mn, Fe and Zn) and Metal Oxides (ZnO, CuO, TiO2 and CeO2) in Human Body. Asian J. Research Chem. 6(12): December 2013; Page 1179-1182.
25.    Avnish Kumar Arora, Vivek Sheel Jaswal, Renu Bala. Metal/Mixed Metal Oxides and their Applications as Catalyst: A Review. Asian J. Research Chem. 2018; 11(6):893-899.
26.    Muhammad Adnan Younis, Iftikhar Hussain Bukhari, Qaisar Abbas, Neelam Bin Talib, Sana Shaukat. Synthesis, importance and applications of metal oxide nanomaterials. Int. J. Tech. 2018; 8(2): 49-57.
27.    Ruud J.B, Peters Greet van Bemmel, et al. Characterisation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in food products: Analytical methods to define nanoparticles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2014 jun 16; 62, 27:6285–6293.
28.    Vyas, Amitkumar J., et al. "A review on carcinogenic impurities found in marketed drugs and strategies for its determination by analytical methods." Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis 11.2 (2021): 159-169.
29.    Jin-Hee Lim, Dongryeoul Bae. Titanium Dioxide in Food Products: Quantitative Analysis Using ICP MS and Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2018; 66 (51):13533-13540.
30.    Indian Pharmacopoeia, the government of India, Ministry of health and family Welfare; 7th EDN; the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ghaziabad, 2007, Volume II, pp 1186-1187.
31.    Yu Yang, Kyle Doudrick. Characterization of Food-Grade Titanium Dioxide: The Presence of Nanosized Particles. Environmental Science & Technology. 2014; 48, 11: 6391–6400.
32.    Sharif H.A, Rasha, et al. Titanium dioxide content in foodstuffs from the Jordanian market: Spectrophotometric evaluation of TiO2 nanoparticles. International Food Research Journal. 2015; 22(3): 1024-1029.
33.    Patel DV, et al. Quality improvement methodologies in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Asian Journal of Management. 2010; 1(1):01-03.
34.    Patel AB, Asnani AH, et al. A brief review on genotoxic impurities in pharmaceuticals. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021; 11(3):187-193.
35.    Rani SG, et al. Glimepiride: A review of analytical methods. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2014; 4(4):178-182.
36.    Phadtare DG, et al. A brief review on quality by design and process analytical technology. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2016; 6(2):122-130.
37.    Sahoo CK, et al. Validation of analytical procedure- A Review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2018; 8(2):109-116.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Dipti G. Phadtare, Pawar Amol R, R.B. Saudagar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2016.00019.3         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): G. Krishnamoorthy, C. Diana Priyadarshini, R. Senthamarai

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Hamid Khan, Javed Ali

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2017.00020.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Shobha Rani G, Lohita M, Jaya Preethi P, Madhavi R, Sunisitha B, Mounika D

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Kirthi A, Shanmugam R, Mohana Lakshmi S , Ashok Kumar CK, Padmini K, Shanti Prathyusha M, Shilpa V

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Mansi J. Chaudhari, Suraj R. Chaudhari, Shailesh S. Chalikwar, Atul A. Shirkhedkar

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2018.00008.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Khushboo Patel*, Dhara Patel, Jaya Dwivedi, Priyanka Newal, Dhananjay Meshram

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2017.00039.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Paras Virani, Rajanit Sojitra, Hasumati Raj, Vineet Jain

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2015.00025.3         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): P. Janaki Pathi, N. Appala Raju, G.Parvathalu

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saroj Kumar Raul, Gopal Krishna Padhy, Pramudula Ramya Krishna, Boddu Uma Madhu Priya

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): B. Thangabalan, M. Salomi, N. Sunitha, S. Manohar Babu

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Saroj Kumar Raul, Bukkuru Spandana, Patibandla Sameera, Vegiraju Vikitha

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis (AJPA) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, devoted to pharmaceutical analysis...... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2231–5675 

Recent Articles