Theobromine, formely known as xantheose is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2. It is found in chocolate, as well as in a number of other foods, including the leaves of tea plant, and the kola nut. Theophylline also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthines drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand name. Methylxanthine is also derivative of xanthenes. These all three are mostly present in tea, and these chemical have some effective property related with respiratory tract disorder.
Cite this article:
Ritik S. Jain, Shital I. Rathod, Paresh A. Patil, Dipesh R. Karnavat. Review on Methylxanthine, Theobromine and Theophylline. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2020; 10(3): 173-174. doi: 10.5958/2231-5675.2020.00031.9
1. Review article on “Theobromine Benefits, side effects and dosage by Jonathan Ritter, PuyaYazdi and AlekshaRistic publish by “Selfhacked”, Publish on 3-Jan-2020.
2. Article on “Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate by Rofaelfranco, AihnhoaOnotibia-Astibia and Eva Martinez-Pinilla.
3. Article on Effect of Theophylline and Non-selective xanthine derivatives on PDE Isoenzymes and cellular function by Gordon Dent, Klaus F. Rabe.
4. Article on Theobromine: Benefits and Side-effects of Cocoa’s Interesting Phytochemical by Michael Joseph on August 13, 2018.
5. Article on Theophylline by Peter.J. Barnes published by American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Volume 188, Issue 8.
6. Article on “Dosage of theophylline in bronchial asthma” by Kenneth.M. Piafsky and Richard. I. Ogilvie published by “The New England Journal of Medicine”
7. Article on “Theobromine “Written by “The Editor of Encyclopaedia Britannica” and published by “Britannica”.
8. Article on Pharmaceuticals by Konnie. H. Plumlee, , In Clinical Veterinary Toxicology, -2004.
9. Article on “Nootropics, functional foods and dietary patterns for prevention of Cognitive decline”, by Francesco Bonetti, Giovannizuliani, “Nutrition and functional foods for healthy Aging-2017.
10. Article on “Airway pharmacology” by David.R. Ball, Barry.E. Mcguire, in Benum and Hegberg’s Airway Management- 2013.
11. Article on “Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases” by Derek.G. Waller and Anthony.P. Sampson, published by “Medical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Fifth edition-2018.
12. Article on “Apnea of prematurity, sudden Infant Death Syndrome and apparent life – Threatening Events, by Christian.F. Poets, published by Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, second edition-2008.
13. Article on “Methylxanthines” by Linda.K. Dolder, Small Animal Toxicology, Third edition-2013.