GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethylacetate extract of Mesua ferrea Linn. leaves

 

Sruthikrishna P.K1*, Sapna Shrikumar2

1Student, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Research Laboratory,

Nehru College of Pharmacy, Pampady, Thiruvilwamala, Thrissur-680588, Kerala, India.

2Head of the Department, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Research Laboratory,

Nehru College of Pharmacy, Pampady, Thiruvilwamala, Thrissur-680588, Kerala, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sruthykrishna242@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Mesua ferrea Linn., commonly called Nagakesara or Ceylon iron wood belongs to the family Calophyllaceae. The present study deals with the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy analysis of Mesua ferrea, which have different medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phytocomponents present in the ethylacetate extract of Mesua ferrea by using Shimadzu GC-MS Model number: QP2010S equipped with Column - ELITE-5MS (30 meter length, 0.25 mm ID, and 0.25 µm thicknesses). Fourteen compounds were identified and which includes (-)-.alpha.-copaene, .alpha.-Bergamotene, (+)-valencene, beta-eudesmene, .alpha.-selinene, .beta.-Bisabolene, 2, 4-ditert-butylphenol, delta.-cadinene, neophytadiene, Phytol, .beta.-Resorcylic acid, 5-(3, 7-dimethyl-2, 6-octadienyl)-6-pentyl-, ethyl ester, (E)-, Squalene, nonadecane, tricosane.

 

KEYWORDS: GC-MS, Mesua ferrea Linn, Calophyllaceae, phytocomponents, ethylacetate extract.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Mesua ferrea Linn of Calophyllaceae family, commonly called as ‘Nagachampa’ is a medium to large sized tree and grows up to 18-30 m height. It is a common ayurvedic herb. It is widely found in tropical countries like India, Burma, Thailand, China and New Guinea. Mesua ferrea Linn is commonly known as in ‘Nagkeshar’ in Hindi and ‘Ceylon Ironwood’ in English1, 2. Mesua ferrea is frequently distributed in evergreen lowland forest and on ridges with shallow soils from sea level up to an altitude of 1500 m. Mesua ferrea used for various purposes throughout the world, especially for its traditional uses.

 

In India, the past generations extensively use this plant and considered as one of the most useful medicinal plant. The plant traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments like pain, inflammation, rheumatic conditions, improve immunity, and used as antiseptic, antiasthmatic, antiallergic remedy etc3, 4. Useful parts include fruits, seed, flowers, buds, leaves and bark5. Its leaves and flowers possess rich and high medicinal value property and act like an antidote for dangerous snake bite. A paste of the butter and sugar with its flowers is used in the conditions of bleeding piles and burning of the feet consists as one of the vital application of flowers. Oil extracted from its seeds beneficial in the treatment of itching6. The plant can be used as antimicrobial, antibacterial and antiprotozoal. Mesua ferrea linn is cytotoxic to T-lymphocyte leukemia cells and antimicrobial also possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcers along with central nervous system (CNS) depressant. Leaves has been used in the form of poultice, in severe colds which can be applied to head, also can be used in any kind of disturbance of stomach, cough, high perspiration, dyspepsia etc. Leaves are also used in treating scorpion strings7. It consist of very important class of compounds like coumarins, xanthones, pyranoxanthones, flavonoids, a few terpenoids and steroids which are very important phytoconstituents.2

 

Figure 1. Mesua ferrea Linn. leaves

 

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) is a hyphenated system. It is a compatible technique and commonly used for the identification and quantification purpose. The unknown organic compounds present in the complex mixture can be determined by interpretation and also by matching the spectra with a reference spectra8. There are numerous reports on many plants and plant parts by GC-MS analysis studies. These studies were used to ascertain the presence of active phytocomponents responsible for the therapeutic activities9.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Plant material collection and authentification:

The plant material (leaves) of Mesua ferrea Linn were collected from Vaidhyaratnam botanical garden, Thrissur, Kerala, India. The specimens collected from nursery were identified with the standard literature and authenticated with valid voucher specimens. The collected leaves was taxonomically identified and authenticated by the Botanist, Dr. Ranjusha A.P, Department of Botany, NSS College; Ottapalam. A voucher specimen of Mesua ferrea Linn (accession no: 18369) has been deposited at Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI) for future reference.

 

The leaves of plant were shade dried and coarsely powdered. 20 g of coarsely powdered leaves was packed in Soxhlet apparatus and extracted by using 250ml ethyl acetate solvent (approx.2days). The extract was collected. The extract was then filtered by using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and concentrated. The extract obtained was then subjected to GC-MS analysis10.

 

GC-MS analysis:

Gas chromatography Mass spectroscopy analysis of ethyl acetate extract was performed using Shimadzu GC-MS Model number: QP2010S equipped with Column - ELITE-5MS (30 meter length, 0.25 mm ID, and 0.25 µm thicknesses). Electron ionization system was used; details of GC programme were given in the table 1. The oven temperature was programmed from 70.000C which is given in table 2. Helium gas was used as the carrier gas. Details of GC-MS programme was given in table 3. Programme specifications regarding Mass Spectra were depicted in table 4. GCMS Software: GCMS Solutions, Libraries used: NIST 11 and Wiley 8 11.

 

Table1. GC programme [GC-2010]

GC-MS Parameters

Programme

Column Oven Temperature

60.0 °C

Injection Temperature

260.00 °C

Injection Mode

Split

Flow Control Mode

Linear Velocity

Pressure

57.5 kPa

Total Flow

24.0 mL/min

Column Flow

1.00 mL/min

Linear Velocity

36.5 cm/sec

Purge Flow

3.0 mL/min

Split Ratio

20.0

Splitter Hold

OFF

 

Table2. Oven temperature programme

Rate

Temperature (⁰C)

Hold time(min)

-

60.0

0.00

5.00

280.0

5.00

 

Table3. GC-MS Programme [GCMS-QP2010]

GC-MS Parameters

Programme

Ion source temperature

200.00 ⁰C

Interface temperature

280.00 ⁰C

Solvent cut time

5.00 min

Detector gain mode

Relative

Detector gain

0.98 kV +0.20 kV

Threshold

500

 

Table4. MS Table

Mass spectroscopy parameters

Programme

Start time

5.10min

End time

49.00min

ACQ Mode

Scan

Event time

0.50sec

Scan speed

1250

Start m/z

50.00

End m/z

650.00

Sample inlet unit

GC

 

Identification of compounds:

The constituents present in the extract were identified by comparing their relative retention time and confirmation was done by comparing the mass spectra with database from the Library of NIST 11 and Wiley 8. GC-MS Chromatogram obtained was given in figure.2

 

RESULTS:

GC-MS analysis is the best technique for the identification of phytocomponents of volatile matter, long chain, branched chain hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters etc. The GC-MS analysis of ethylacetate extract of Mesua ferrea Linn leaves revealed the presence of fourteen compounds that contribute to the therapeutic property of the plant. The identification of the active compounds through GC-MS analysis was confirmed based on the peak area, retention time and molecular formula. The active compounds with their Retention time (RT), peak area and peak height in percentage is given in the table 5 and fig 1. The first compound identified with less retention time (16.217 min) was (-)-Alpha-copaene, whereas Tricosane was the last compound which took longest retention time (47.341min) to identify. The phytocomponents identified by GC-MS analysis showed many pharmacological activities relevant to this study are listed in the table 6.

 


Figure 2. GC-MS chromatogram of ethylacetate leaf extract of Mesua ferrea Linn.

 

Table 5. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phytochemical components in ethylacetate leaf extract of Mesua ferrea Linn.

Peak #

R. Time

Area

Area%

Height

Height %

Name

Base m/z

1

16.217

4129802

21.17

1672966

23.09

(-)-Alpha-Copaene

105.05

2

17.678

1960773

10.05

785953

10.85

Alpha-Bergamotene

93.00

3

18.743

566231

2.90

216442

2.99

(+)-Valencene

161.05

4

19.038

2804764

14.38

876631

12.10

Beta-Eudesmene

93.05

5

19.246

1791154

9.18

679293

9.38

Alpha-Selinene

93.00

6

19.464

474863

2.43

201308

2.78

Beta-Bisabolene

69.00

7

19.579

623939

3.20

240183

3.31

2,4-Ditert-Butylphenol

191.05

8

19.881

510257

2.62

213897

2.95

Delta-Cadinene

161.05

9

26.678

1031992

5.29

407300

5.62

Neophytadiene

68.00

10

32.011

328867

1.69

132387

1.83

Phytol

71.00

11

41.620

1316977

6.75

430189

5.94

Beta-Resorcylic acid, 5-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-6-pentyl-, ethyl ester, (E)-

305.05

12

43.262

2540422

13.02

940277

12.98

Squalene

69.05

13

44.127

412603

2.12

172989

2.39

Nonadecane

57.05

14

 47.341

1015093

5.20

275841

3.81

Tricosane

57.05

 

Table 6. Pharmacological activity of phytocomponents in the ethyl acetate extract of Mesua ferrea Linn. leaves

Sl. No

R. Time

Name of the compound

Compound nature

Reported bioactivity

1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

16.217

(-)-Alpha-Copaene

Sesquiterpene

Anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-genotoxic and anti-microbial

2                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

17.678

Alpha-Bergamotene

Monoterpenoids

anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory

3                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

18.743

(+)-Valencene

Sesquiterpene

Anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-melanogenesis, anti-septic and anti-atopic effect

4                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

19.038

Beta-Eudesmene

Sesquiterpene

Anti- inflammatory, anti- allergic, anti-microbial, anti- tumor, anti- angiogenic, and anti- insecticidal

5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

19.464

Beta-Bisabolene

Sesquiterpene

Anti-tumour, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant

6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

19.579

2,4-Ditert-Butylphenol

Phenol

Anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, insecticidal, nematicidal, anti-viral, allelopathy

7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

19.881

Delta-Cadinene

Sesquiterpene

Anti-bacterial and phytotoxic

8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

26.678

Neophytadiene

Diterpene

Anti-pyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, carminative, gastrin inhibitor, anti-ulcerative, anti-protozoal, anti-parasitic

9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

32.011

Phytol

Diterpene

Anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer , diuretic, immuno stimulatory, anti-diabetic and anti-malarial

10                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

41.620

Beta-Resorcylic acid, 5-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-6-pentyl-, ethyl ester, (E)-

Di hydroxyl benzoic acid

Anti-microbial and thyroid peroxidase inhibitory effect

11                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

43.262

Squalene

Triterpenoid

Anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, immuno stimulant, chemo preventive, lipoxygenase-inhibitor, pesticide, neutralize different xenobiotics, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, role in skin aging and pathology, and adjuvant activities.

12                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

44.127

Nonadecane

Alkane hydrocarbon

Anti-HIV, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, cytotoxic effect, anti-malarial, Unini uses like weakness of the principal organs like heart, brain, liver, general weakness, haemoptysis, palpitation, conjunctivitis, earache, stomatitis

13                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

47.341

Tricosane

Hydrocarbons

Anti-oxidant and anti-microbial

 


DISCUSSION:

The gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry that is GC-MS gives more precise information in qualitative analysis12.gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and GC-MS are recommended for the quantitative determination13, 14, 15.

 

The GC-MS chromatogram analysis of the extract of Mesua ferrea leaves showed fourteen peaks, which indicates the presence of fourteen phytochemical constituents. The identified compounds show many pharmacological properties. For instance, (-)-alpha-copaene [R/T 16.217] possess anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, the limited numbers of recent investigations have revealed that α-COP possesses important biological activities, including anti-genotoxic and antioxidant activity16. (+)-Valencene [R/T18.743] can be an anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-melanogenesis activity, anti-septic and anti-atopic effect17, 18. Alpha- Bergamotene [R/T 17.678] shows anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pharmacological activities19, 20. Beta- eudesmene [R/T 19.038] have activities of anti- inflammatory, anti- allergic activities, antimicrobial, anti- tumor, anti- angiogenic, and anti- insecticidal21. Beta-bisabolene [R/T 19.464] acts as anti-tumour, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant22, 19. 2, 4-Ditert-Butylphenol [R/T 19.579] has the anti-fungal, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxicity, insecticidal, nematicidal, anti-viral and allelopathy activity23, 24, 25. Delta-Cadinene [R/T 19.881] is reported to be an anti-bacterial and phytotoxic26, 27. Neophytadiene [R/T 26.678] act as anti-pyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, carminative, gastrin inhibitor, anti-ulcerative, anti-protozoal, and anti-parasitic28, 29, 30. Phytol [R/T 32.011] is an anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, diuretic, immuno stimulatory, anti-diabetic and anti-malarial28, 30, 31. Beta-Resorcylic acid [R/T 41.620] having anti-microbial and thyroid peroxidase inhibitory effect32, 33. Squalene [R/T 43. 262] is a tritepenoid possess anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, immuno stimulant, chemo preventive, lipoxygenase-inhibitor, pesticide, neutralize different xenobiotics, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, role in skin aging and pathology, and adjuvant activities28 31, 34, 35, 36. Nonadecane [R/T 44.127] act as anti-HIV, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, cytotoxic effect, anti-malarial , Unini uses like weakness of the principal organs like heart, brain, liver, general weakness, haemoptysis, palpitation, conjunctivitis, earache, stomatitis31. Tricosane [R/T 47.341] is reported to be an anti-oxidant and anti-microbial37.

 

Thus, GC-MS analysis of Mesua ferrea leaves extract is the first step towards understanding the active compounds in this plant, and such a study would be helpful for a more detailed study. Further investigation into the pharmacological importance of Mesua ferrea leaves may add new knowledge to the information in the traditional medicinal plants.

 

CONCLUSION:

The peak pattern of chromatograms obtained from headspace analysis can often be used to identify the source of numerous plants (herbs and spices). Similarly, GC analysis may often assist identify the provenance of many alcoholic beverages by revealing distinctive qualitative and quantitative patterns. False herbal goods could be identified using fingerprint technology. The purpose of developing chromatographic fingerprints is to assess the quality of herbal medicines. The main rationale for quality control of herbal medicines is based on the notion of phyto-equivalence of herbs, which is then used to distinguish between genuine and counterfeit herbal medicines, as well as to perform quality control. Therefore, the GC-MS method offers a straightforward and quick analytical methodology for identifying terpenoids and steroids, requiring only a few grams of plant material. The work is significant since some of these compounds have biological action.

 

In the present study, fourteen compounds from leaves extract of Mesua ferrea were identified by GC-MS analysis. The biological activities of each of the identified phyto components range from antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-diabetic, anti-diuretic, anti-malarial, anti-protozoal, anti-ulcerative and anticancer etc. The researches findings have shown that the leaves extract of Mesua ferrea are extensively rich in secondary metabolites. The plant leaves have a high potential for a vast number of bioactive compounds, which justified its use for various ailments by traditional practitioners. These findings have provided a scientific basis to the ethno medical usage of the plant. Individual phytochemical constituent isolation and testing of biological activity and toxicity profiles, on the other hand, will yield positive results.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

The authors have no conflicts of interest regarding this investigation.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

The authors are acknowledging The Chairman and Managing Trustee, Adv. Dr. P. Krishnadas, Nehru College of Pharmacy, Pampady, Thiruvilwamala, Thrissur, Kerala, for providing all the support.

 

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Received on 23.11.2021       Modified on 29.01.2022

Accepted on 07.04.2022   ©Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2022; 12(2):121-126.

DOI: 10.52711/2231-5675.2022.00022