Preparation and Evaluation of Toothpaste

 

Asha M. Jagtap*, Sudhir R. Kaulage, Shivam S. Kanse, Vishal D. Shelke, Akshata S. Gavade, Ganesh B. Vambhurkar, Rohit R. Todkar, Vidya N. Dange.

Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon, Dist–Sangli, Maharashtra, India–415404.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ashajagtap018@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Toothpastes are complex mixtures of abrasives and surfactants; anticaries agents, such as fluoride; tartar control ingredients; pH buffers; humectants (to prevent dry-out and increase the pleasant mouth feel); and binders, to provide consistency and shape. Binders keep the solid phase properly suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the liquid phase out of the toothpaste. The dental paste preparations of herbal toothpast designed using different bases for treatment of gingivitis, periodentitis and dental plaque. During our Physicochemical evaluation studies all the formulations were found to have PH, good tube extrudability, good Spreadability and viscosity characteristics.

 

KEYWORDS: Toothpaste, Extrudability, Tulsi leaves oil, Clove oil, Neem leaves oil.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Toothpastes have been used since the ancient past[1] and are one of main irreplaceable components of oral health care. The design of toothpaste formulations began in China and India, as 300-500 BC. During that period, squashed bone, pulverized egg and clam shells were utilized as abrasives as a part of tooth cleaning. Modern toothpaste formulations were developed in the 19th century. Later on, chalk and soap were incorporated to those formulations. After 1945, several formulation advancements of different detergents had begun; sodium lauryl sulfate had been used as emulsifying agent. In recent years, the focus has shifted towards the release of active ingredients during formulation developments to prevent and /or treat oral illness[2] [3].

 

Toothpaste is a dentifrice used to clean, maintain and improve the health of teeth.

 

Toothpaste is mainly used to promote oral cleanliness and also acts as an abrasive that helps to prevent the dental plaque and food particles from the teeth, aids in the removing and/or veiling of halitosis, and releases active ingredients such as fluoride to aid in preventing tooth and gum disease (eg. Gingivitis)[4].

 

Toothpastes are complex mixtures of abrasives and surfactants; anticaries agents, such as fluoride; tartar control ingredients; pH buffers; humectants (to prevent dry-out and increase the pleasant mouth feel); and binders, to provide consistency and shape. Binders keep the solid phase properly suspended in the liquid phase to prevent separation of the liquid phase out of the toothpaste. They also provide body to the dentifrice, especially after extrusion from the tube onto the toothbrush. It is the responsibility of the oral care professional to understand the ingredients in toothpastes and direct patients to different products based upon their individual needs[5][6]

 

Ideal properties of toothpaste:

·      Good abrasive effect

·      Non irritant and non toxic

·      Impart no stain in tooth

·      Keep the mouth fresh and clean

·      Prolonged effect

·      Cheap and easily available

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Medicated tooth paste was prepared using, clove oil, Tulsi oil, Neem oil, Guar gum, calcium carbonate, sodium lauryl sulphate, Xylitol, Sodium chloride, methyl paraben, menthol, titanium dioxide, glycerine, Amaranth solution. Neem leaf oil and fruit of clove oil possesses the antibacterial activity, bad breath of mouth is prevented by tulsi oil. Sodium lauryl sulphate used gives foaming, Xylitol as a sweetening agents, Methyl paraben as a preservative, Amranth solution as a colouring agent, glycerine as a humectants. All these chemicals were purchased from SD fine chemicals Islampur.

 

Method of preparation of toothpaste:

Trituration method:

The binder is premixed with solid abrasive and triturate, which is then mixed with the liquid phase containing humectants, oils, Then add preservative and sweetener into a mixer. After formation of homogeneous paste, the flavor and the detergent added last under slow speed agitation to minimize foaming, mixed, milled deairated and tubed.

 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK:

 

Table1: Formulation table

Ingredients (gm)

Quantity (W/W) %

Role

Guar gum

0.5

Laxetive

Tulsi leaves oil

0.8

Prevent bad breath

Clove oil

0.2

Antibacterial

Neem leaves oil

0.2

Antibacterial

Sodium chloride

2

Anti Cavities

Calcium carbonate

50

Abrasive

Xylitol

0.2

Anti tooth decay

Methyl Paraben

0.2

Preservative

Menthol

0.1

Cooling agent

Titanium dioxide

0.5

Whitening agent

Sodium Lauryl sulphate

2.5

Detergent

Glycerine

30

Humectant

Amranth solution

0.1

Colouring agent

Water q.s

100

Vehicle

 

Evaluation of toothpaste:

A.   Evaluation:

a.    Colour:

Colour of the prepared toothpaste was evaluated for its colour. The colour was checked visually.

b.      Odour:

Odour was found by smelling the product.

c.      Taste:

Taste was checked manually by tasting the product

 

B. Physical characterization test[8]:

a. Determination of Ph:

Take 1 gm of the tooth paste in a 150 ml beaker and add 10 ml of freshly boiled and cooled water (at 27ºC). Stir well to make a thorough suspension. Determined the pH of the suspension within 5 minutes, using digital pH meter. The results were mentioned. As shown in fig.1.

 

 

Figure1: Determination of pH

 

b. Foamability:

The foam ability of the product was evaluated by taking small amount of preparation with water in a measuring cylinder initial volume was noted and then shaken for 10 times. Final volume of foam was noted. As shown in fig. 2.

 

 

Figure 2: Foamability

 

c. Study of rheological properties:

i. Spreadability:

The Spreadability is term express to denote the extent of area to which the paste readily spreads on application area. One of the criteria for a paste to meet ideal quality is that it should posses good spreadability. About 1 gm of medicated dental paste was weighed and kept at the center of the glass plate (10 x10 cm) and, another glass plate was placed over it carefully. 1kg weight was placed at the center of the plate (avoid sliding of the plate). The diameter of the paste in cms, after 15 min. was measured. As shown in fig.3.

 

The Spreadability (S) can be calculated using the formula S=m.l/t Where, S–Spreadability. m-Weight tied to upper glass slide. l-Length moved glass slide. t-Time taken.

 

Figure 3: Spreadability

 

 

ii. Tube extrudability:

The formulation under study was filled in a clean, lacquered aluminum collapsible one-ounce tube with a nasal tip of 5mm opening and applies the pressure on tube by the help of finger. Tube extrudability was then determined by measuring the amount of pastextruded through the tip when a pressure was applied on tube paste.

 

iii. Viscosity:

Paste viscosity measurements were evaluated using a Brookfield digital viscometer (LV DV–II Ultras programmable Remoter, USA) using spindle no.3 by applying increasing values of the shear rate, in order to reveal possible flow behavior of the pastes. All viscosities measurements were performed at controlled temperature of 300c. As shown in fig. 4.

 

 

Figure 4: Brookfield digital viscometer

 

 

C. Microbiological studies[9]

In present work, antibacterial activity of paste was tested by used against causative microorganism on agar plates. By taking microorganism such as E. coli, candida albicans, staphylococcus aureus.

 

 

 

Evaluation of prepared toothpaste paste formulations for Antimicrobial activity:

The (Agar-well diffusion) standard cup plate technique was used to determine the antimicrobial activity by using Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (Hi-media) and Mancockys agar and nutrient agar. The melted media were seeded with the suspension of microorganisms and allowed to solidify. The formulations were aseptically transferred to the Hi media in petridish with the help of sterile forceps. The dental pastes were kept for diffusion in an incubator at 30°C for 5-7 days. The assessment of antimicrobial activity was based on the measurement of diameter of zone of inhibition in mm. As shown in fig. 5.

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 5: Microbiological studies

 

 

 

RESILTS AND DISCUSSION:

Table 2: Description

Sr.No.

Parameters

Observation

1.

Colour

Pink

2.

Odour

Characteristic

3.

 Taste

Sweet

4.

Stability

Stable

5.

Spreadability

Easily spread

6.

Abrasiveness

Good abrasive

7.

Foamability

Good

 

 

Table 3: Physical evaluation of Formulation

Sr.No.

Parameters

Observation

1.

pH

8.7

2.

Spredability ( cm )

7.7cm

3.

 Viscosity ( CPS)

39751.6cps

4.

Tube Excludability

Good

 

 

Table 4: Antimicrobial activity of Formulation

Sr.

No

Organism

 

50µg/ml

100µg/ml

50µg/ml

100µg/gm

1.

E. coli

+

+

+

++

2.

S. aureus

++

++

++

+++

3.

C. Albicans

++

++

++

+++

Highly active [+++]: 7-9mm

Moderately active [++]: 4-6mm

Slightly active [+]: 3mm

Inactive [-]: less than 3mm

 

CONCLUSION:

Following conclusion can be drawn from the results obtained in the present work of investigation. The dental paste preparations of herbal toothpaste designed using different bases for treatment of gingivitis, periodentitis and dental plaque. During our Physicochemical evaluation studies all the formulations were found to have PH, good tube extrudability, good Spreadability and viscosity characteristics.

 

REFERENCES:

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4.       The History of Toothpaste and Toothbrushes. Bbc.co.uk. 2013.

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6.       Dange VN., Magdum CS., Mohite SK., Nitalikar MM., Shid SJ. International Journal of Universal Pharmacy and Bio Sciences. 2014; 3 (6): 68-79.

7.       Ashlui FP., Skinner A., Jackson P., Wilson RF. The effect of 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse on plaque & gingivitis in adult subjects. Br.Dent. 1984; 157:191-195.

8.       Moran J., Comparison of a phenolic and a 0.2% chlerhexidine mouthwash on the development of plaque and gingivitis”, Clin. Prev. Dent. 1991; 13 (4):31-35.

9.       Raymond CR., Paul JS., Marine EQ. “Handbook of Pharmaceutical excipients.”Sixth Edition. 2009; 86-786.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 01.10.2018       Accepted on 02.11.2018     

© Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2018; 8(4): 191-194.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2018.00035.2