J. Subba Rao1*, D. Suryanarayana Raju1, S. Vidyadhara2, J. Venkateswara Rao3,
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chowdavaram, Guntur, A. P., India.
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chowdavaram, Guntur, A. P., India.
3Department of Biotechnology and Pharmacognosy, Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chowdavaram, Guntur, A. P., India.
The scope of present work was to analyze the components of water samples in order to ensure the purity of the ground water collected from various regions of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh. The collected sample was tested for various components such as chlorides, sulfates, total dissolved solids, pH, hardness and microbial analysis was also performed. According to standard criteria, the chloride content should not exceed 15026.9418 ppm, herein all the analyzed samples chloride content was within the limits. The presence of sulfates for the tested samples within limits except for the sample numbers 3,5,7,8, and 12 which were exceeding the limits. The results for all samples for total dissolved solids (TDS) and pH were also within limits. For no one sample, the hardness was falling within limits. The microbial assay was performed for total 13 samples. The excess of microorganisms was present in samples 2 and 3. The ground water collected from different areas with a time interval of 6 months were tested for same components and the observed variations were reported.
Water is a polar compound that is an important solvent for polar molecules in chemistry and known as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances. It is amphoteric in nature, meaning, it is both an acid and a base, produces H+ and OH− ions by self-ionization. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. It is commonly found in its solid, liquid and gas forms in nature.
The molecular formula of water is H2O and is having a mass of 18.01528g/mol. According to IUPAC, it may be called as oxidane. It is having the density of 1,000kg/m3 and the boiling point was 1000C.
According to literature survey, there were several techniques to analyze different components present in water. The main objective of present work is to analyze water samples in a simple but accurate way to get knowledge of water contents variations with a time gap of 6 months1.
MATERIALS AND INSTRUMENTS:
All the reagents which were available easily in the laboratory, such as, Silver nitrate, Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chromate, and Phenolphthalein indicator, Isopropyl alcohol, Glycerol, conc. Hcl, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium hydroxide, EDTA, Erichrome Black T, Magnesium Sulphate and etc. used were of analytical grade. Simple laboratory equipment has been used for the determination of water components, like Burette, Pipettes with elongated tips, conical flask, beaker, and etc have been used. The sulfates content was assessed by using UV spectrophotometer. The microbial analysis was carried out by using Autoclave, Incubator, Sterile air flow chamber, and Hot air oven.
Chemical analysis of Components:
The following chemical and analytical methods were used for the estimation of different types of components present in collected water samples from various regions of the capital city (Amaraavathi) of newly formed state (Andhra Pradesh) in INDIA. The components, such as chlorides, sulfates, total dissolved solids, pH, and hardness were determined. The microbiological analysis also was carried out for all the samples.
Test for Chlorides:
Preparation of Lassaigness Extract:
The presence of chlorides and sulfates identified by using Lassaigness extract. A small quantity of sodium metal was taken and inserted in red ignition tube and the tube was heated to red hot. Then the heated tube was placed in a mortar containing 10ml of water and the tube had been crushed into fine particles. The solution was filtered and insoluble residue was removed. The filtrate collected has been used for the analysis of special elements. Here, the chlorides content was ascertained by using titrimetric analysis.
Analysis of Chlorides:
The presence of chlorides was determined by using precipitation titrimetric analysis method. The standard solution of AgNO3 having normality of 0.028N was used for the determination of chlorides. The normality of standard solution was determined using standardization with an equal concentration of a standard solution of sodium chloride2-4. Same calculations were done for all the samples and results were reported in Figure 1.
Test for Sulphates:
To the Lassaigness extract, sodium nitroprusside solution was added, a red color was produced which indicates the presence of sulfates.
Analysis of sulfates:
The turbidimetric method used for measuring sulfates which were based on the fact that the barium sulfates tend to precipitate in a colloidal form of uniform size and that tendency enhanced in presence of a sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and glycerol.
SO42- + BaCl2 → BaSO4
The absorbance of the barium sulfates formed measured by a spectrophotometer at 420 nm and the sulfates ion concentration determined by comparison of the reading with a standard curve. The standard, blank and test samples were prepared as per the procedures described earlier5-8. The instrument is calibrated and a standard curve was obtained. All samples of water to be analyzed were taken in test cuvette and values were calculated.
Test for TDS (Total Dissolved Solids):
Total dissolved solids were determined by evaporating the samples to dryness. 250ml of the filtered sample of water in a convenient portion in a tarred 100ml evaporated dish was evaporated and dry the residue at 105ºc till to constant weight. TDS was calculated by using the formula8-10.
Total dissolved solids = Wt of residue in mg ×1000
----------------------------------------------- Volume of sample
Calculations are done for all the samples collected in both March and September and reported in Figure-3.
Test for PH:
The pH of the collected water samples was measured using pH meter. The instrument was calibrated first and then used for measuring of PH values. The sample is taken in a 100ml beaker and the electrode is dipped in the solution. The readings noted down.
Test for Hardness:
The hardness of water samples was determined using EDTA. The water sample(20ml) taken in a conical flask to that added 2 drops of Erichrome Black T indicator and titrated against standard EDTA solution. The obtained results were noted and calculated using the formula11-13.
Hardness = Volume of EDTA × N ×50 ×1000 = 520ppm
Volume of sample taken
Calculations are done for all the samples collected in both March and September and reported in Figure-6.
Lactose medium was used for microbial analysis of all water samples. The media was prepared as per the procedure14. The media was sterilized using an autoclave. After that, the broth is cooled to a normal temperature at which the added water sample bacteria can resist the heat. To those tubes according to the batch 10ml, 1ml and 0.1ml of the water sample is added. Then they are incubated in an incubator for 24-48hr to observe the growth of bacteria. The growth of microorganisms was observed in all 3 batches for all water samples to be analyzed. Observations are done for all the samples collected in both March and September and reported in a table- 6.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
According to the aim of work, several parameters of the water samples were analyzed and were calculated comparing with the standards. Parameters like PH, Hardness, chlorides, sulfates and total dissolved solids were analyzed. The results of all the parameters were given in Figures1-6. Among all the samples, several parameters were within acceptable criteria while few parameters were out of acceptance criteria.
Figure 1: Graphical data for Chlorides presence
Figure 2: Graphical data for Sulphates
Figure 3: Graphical data for TDS
Figure 4: Graphical data for PH
Figure 5: Graphical data for Hardness
Figure 6: Graphical results of Microbial contents of water
Coming to chlorides their presence to some extent can help in reducing micro-organisms but if the limit of chlorine exceeds it can lead to increase in chances of heart attacks, throat infections, skin rashes. According to standard criteria chloride content should not exceed 15026.9418039604ppm. In analyzed samples, all samples were within limits. The results of chloride content in the collected water samples were given in Figure 1. Comparing the samples collected from March to September there is a very less increase in chloride contents in September. So care must be taken by checking constantly the levels of chlorides to prevent the chance of health hazards. The samples according to chlorides presence are suitable for daily utilities.
Sulphates presence in excess may cause emetic and astringent effects. Generally, sulfates are added to water to reduce the growth of algae. According to standards, sulfates should be in the limit of concentration<601.0776721585ppm. The results of sulfate content in the collected water samples were given in Figure-2. In analyzing samples 3, 5, 7, 8, 12 were exceeding the limits and all the samples showed an increase from March to September. These samples which cannot be within acceptable criteria were needed to be taken care and their usage should be reduced.
Total Dissolved Solids is the total content of water soluble organic and inorganic substances. According to standards acceptable criteria for TDS is concentration< 20035.9224052805ppm. The results of TDS in the collected water samples were given in Figure-3. All the samples analyzed were within limits and their inclination to is less between March and September.
According to standards PH of the samples should be within 6-10 PH scale. The pH values of in the analyzed water samples were given in Figures-4 and 5. All the samples showed no change in PH with in time gap of 6 months.
The hardness of water is due to the presence of calcium and magnesium salts of carbonates or sulfates. The results of hardness in the collected water samples were given in Figure-6. Increase in hardness may cause skin effects in humans and corrosive, rusting effects in utensils and household. In all the samples analyzed no sample falls within limits, and there is a slight increase in hardness from March to September.
Micro organisms should not exceed the number of 2 and should be not more than 2 in number for 100ml (<2number/100ml). The analyzed samples are out of limits and clearly prove that they are not suitable for drinking as well as daily usage purpose. The results of microorganisms in the collected water samples were given in Figure-6. Increase in microbial content may lead to several contagious diseases and skin diseases. So care must be taken in microbial content as this water if used externally or internally can cause drastic effects to health. Mainly in samples 2 and 3 microbial number is excess where those areas water should not be used even for daily utilities.
The chemical and microbiological data, along with the sampling procedures and methods of analysis are presented in the report. The methods of analysis not previously documented for selected constituents are described in detail.
The water-quality data contained in the report will be useful to residents and officials concerned about future drinking water supplies and the discharge of contaminated ground water to ecologically sensitive streams, ponds and new state capital cities environment. The comprehensive data set also will aid researchers in understanding the fate and transport of contaminants in ground water. The water quality data include analysis of physical properties, dissolved solids and bacterial size of abundance.
The experimental data and procedures can help upcoming projects and researchers for their work as the described values are accurate with known précised experiments and results. In further investigations, sophisticated techniques can be used to for analysis individual parameters and several other chemical and oil contents.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST STATEMENT:
We declare that we have no conflict of interest.
The authors are grateful to the management of Chebrolu Hanumaiah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for extending their support and providing facilities to complete this work.
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Received on 21.03.2018 Accepted on 24.04.2018
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Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2018; 8(2):86-90.