Cefadroxil: A Review of Analytical Methods

 

Mr. Mayur S. Jain*, Dr. Shashikant D. Barhate, Mr. Bhushan P. Gayakwad

Shree Sureshadada Jain Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jammer, Maharashtra (India).

*Corresponding Author E-mail: mayurjain176@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Cefadroxil, a firstgeneration cephalosporin antibiotic, is used to treat urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Like all betalactam antibiotics, cefadroxil binds to specific penicillinbinding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, causing the inhibition of the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. This article examines published analytical techniques that are reported so far for determination of cefadroxil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. They included various techniques likes Spectroscopy, First order, Second order, Colorimetry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer chromatography and FTIR.

 

KEYWORDS: Cefadroxil, Analytical methods.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

Cefadroxil chemically a 7[[2amino 2(4hydroxyphenyl) acetyl] amino]3methyl 8oxo5thia1azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct2ene2 carboxylic acid Cefadroxil.

 

 

Fig. 1: Structure of Cefadroxil

 

Cefadroxil, a firstgeneration cephalosporin antibiotic, is used to treat urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Like all betalactam antibiotics, cefadroxil binds to specific penicillinbinding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, causing the inhibition of the third and last stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cell lysis is then mediated by bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes such as autolysins; it is possible that cefadroxil interferes with an autolysin inhibitor. Literature survey revealed that cefadroxil was qualitatively assayed in biological fluids either individually or in presence of other antibacterial drugs using liquid chromatography 5, other new methods and using hydrotope are also there for the determination of cefadroxil 2, 3, 4.

 

Cephalosporin is derivatives of 7-aminocephalosphoric acid and is closely related to penicillin in structure. Cephalosporin’s have six membered sulfur containing ring adjoining a lactam ring. Cefadroxil is very active against gram positive cocci. Antibiotics require constant drug level in body for therapeutic effect. [1] This article examines published analytical techniques that are reported so far for determination of cefadroxil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. They include various techniques likes spectroscopy, first order spectroscopy, second order spectroscopy, Colorimetry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Overview of these methods for determination of cefadroxil is shown in Table No. 1.

 

Table 1: Overview of analytical methods for determination of cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulation

Sr. No.

Analytical methods

No. of methods

1

Spectroscopy

09

2

First order spectroscopy

01

3

Second order spectroscopy

01

4

Colorimetry

01

5

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

01

6

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

04

7

FT-IR

01

 

  I.      SOLUBILITY PREPARATION:

According to Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) water solubility of cefadroxil is 0.399 mg/ml and sparingly soluble in methanol, ether, and acetonitrile. The melting point is 1970C. [2]

1.       Sample preparation strategies:

Sample preparation is the integrated part of analytical methodology, and it was reported that approximately 30% errors contributed from sample analysis was due to sample preparation. Various diluents used for analysis of cefadroxil include.

a.       Methanol: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (1.5: 8: 0.8, v/v/v) at 230 nm.

b.       The solvent used was methanol and distilled water (50: 50) at 264nm.

2.       Solubility of cefadroxil was determined in distilled water and 6 M urea solution at 28°C. There was more than 10-fold enhancement in the solubility of drug in 6 M urea solution, as compared to the solubility in distilled water.

3.       KH2PO4: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 % v/v and the pH 3.5 adjusted with 0.2% orthophosphoric acid.

4.       The solvent used in the combination of water and methanol in the ratio of 75:25.

5.       Accurately weighed 10 mg each of cefadroxil transferred to two different 100 ml volumetric flask and volume was made up with Methanol.

6.       Methanol: Triethylamine (85: 15: 0.1), adjusted to pH-5.5 with 1% H3PO4 as the mobile phase.

7.       Phosphate buffer pH 5.0 and acetonitrile in the ratio (96:4) was used.

8.       Methanol: Phosphate buffer (1: 9). [3]

 

II.          ANALYTICAL METHODS:

Spectrophotometry:

In the literature, 11 methods were used for spectrophotometry, 8 methods for determining cefadroxil alone whereas remaining are for quantifying cefadroxil in combination with other drugs substance. Table 2 shows the summary of the reported spectroscopic methods indicating the basic principle, absorption maximum, solvent, limit of detection. [4]

 

Colorimetry:

In the literature one method was studied for colorimetry of cefadroxil alone. Table 3 shows the summary of the reported colorimetric methods indicating basic principle, absorption maximum, solvent, limit of detection. [5]

 

High performance layer chromatography:

In the literature four methods were studied for High Performance Liquid Chromatography, two methods were for determining cefadroxil alone whereas remaining were for quantifying cefadroxil in combination with other drug substance. Table 4 shows the summary of the reported spectroscopic methods indicating the basic principle, absorption maximum, solvent, limit of detection. [6]

 

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography:

In the literature, one method was studied for High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, one method for quantifying cefadroxil in combination with other drug substances. Table 5 shows the summary of the reported spectroscopic methods indicating the basic principle, absorption maximum, solvent, limit of detection. [7]

 

FT-IR:

This paper describes the development and validation of an innovative method using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy for the determination and quantification of cefadroxil monohydrate in capsules (Table 6). [8]


 

Table 2: Representative Spectroscopic methods for analysis of cefadroxil

Compound/s

Methods

Absorpstion maximum

Solvent

Limit of Detection

References

Cefadroxil

UV-Spectroscopy

224nm

Water and methanol in the ratio of 75:25

---

1,2

Cefadroxil

Spectrophotometric determination of Cefadroxil in Bulk and dosage forms using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine

515 nm.

2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine,distilled water

0.89 and 2.7 μg/ml,

3

Cefadroxil

Spectrophotometric determination of Cefadroxil in bulk and dosage Forms

587 nm

Ninhydrin, Methanol

1.08 μg/ml,

3

Cefadroxil

Spectrophotometric determination of Cefadroxil in bulk and dosage forms

264nm.

Solvent used was methanol and distilled water (50:50)

0. 25μg/ml

5

Cefadroxil

Quantitative spectrophotometric estimation of cefadroxil using hydrotropic solubilisation technique

263 nm

Hydrotropic solution of urea (6 M), water

---

6

Cefadroxil

Spectrophotmetric determination of Cefadroxil in bulk and dosage form Using sodium hydroxide

342 nm

Mixture of 4 volumes of acetonitrile and 96 volumes of a 2.72 g/L solution of potassium dihydrogen phosphate

2. 31 μg/mL.

8

Cefadroxil and probencid

 Derivative Spectrophotmetric determination of Cefadroxil  and probencid

260 nm and 237.8 nm

Methanol and 0.1 N HCl

0.393μg/ml

 

Cefadroxil  and probencid

Simultaneous Uv spectrophotometric methods for estimation of cefadroxil and probenecid in tablet dosage form

 233 nm and 247 nm.

Methanol

----

9

Cefadroxil And Clavulanic Acid

Analytical method development and validation for simultaneous estimation of cefadroxil and clavulanic acid in pharmaceutical dosage form

231 nm and 288 nm

Water: Methanol: Triethylamine (85: 15: 0.1), adjusted pH-5.5 with 1% H3PO4

0.27 μg/ml

-

Cefadroxil

Development and validation of spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of cefadroxil in tablet dosage forms

257 nm

Methanol

0.088749 μg/ml

10

 

Table 3: Representative colorimetric methods for analysis of cefadroxil

Compound/s

Methods

Absorpstion maximum

Solvent

Limit of Detection

References

Cefadroxil and Ceftriazone

Colorimetric Determination of Cefadroxil and Ceftriazone in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

475 nm

1, 2- napthaquinone-4- sulfonic acid sodium.

10 μg/ml

11

 

Table 4: Representative High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods for analysis of cefadroxil

Compound/s

Methods

Absorpstion maximum

Solvent

Limit of Detection

References

Cefadroxil

Determination of Cefadroxil in Tablet/Capsule formulations by a validated Reverse Phase  high Performance Liquid Chromatographic method

----

Methanol: Phosphatebuffer (10: 90)

0.5 μg/ml

12

Cefadroxil

Noval estimation of cefadroxil in tablet dosage forms by RP-HPLC

254 nm

Phosphate buffer pH 5.0 and Acetonitrile ratio (96:4) was used.

0.4μg/ml

13

Cefadroxil and Clavulanic acid

RP-HPLC methods have been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Cefadroxil and Clavulanic acid in pharmaceutical DF

285 nm

Methanol: Triethylamine (85: 15: 0.1), adjusted pH-5.5 with 1% H3PO4 as the mobile phase at a

0.06 μg/ml

13

Cefadroxil And Probenecid

Rp-Hplc Method Development And Validation For Simultaneous Estimation Of Cefadroxil And Probenecid In Synthetic Mixture

226 NM

Phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 6.0±0.1 using orthophosphoric acid): acetonitrile in the proportion of 20:80 (v/v).

0.542 μg/ml

 

14

Cefadroxil Monohydrate

Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for the estimation of Cefadroxil Monohydrate in bulk and its tablet dosage form

220 nm

KH2PO4: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 65:35 % v/v and the pH 3.5

Adjusted with 0.2% orthophosphoric acid.

0.0085μg/ml

-

 

Table 5: High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography

Compound/s

Methods

Absorpstion maximum

Solvent

Limit of Detection

References

Clavulanate and Cefadroxil

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Determination of Potassium Clavulanate and Cefadroxil in Combined Tablet Dosage Form

230 nm

Methanol: Ethyl acetate: Formic

acid (1.5: 8: 0.8, v/v/v)

47.44 μg/ml

15

 

 

Table 6: FTIR

Compound/s

Methods

Absorpstion maximum

Solvent

Limit of Detection

References

Cefadroxil

Development and Validation of an Innovative Method for

the Determination of Cefadroxil Monohydrate in Capsules using FT IR

-

KBr

-

15

 


CONCLUSION:

A large number of techniques are available for the estimation of cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations. The survey of analytical method data revealed the HPLC, UV, Colorimetry, IR, HPTLC methods which could be used for the estimation of drug alone or in combination with other drugs in various formulations. Thus this article examines published analytical techniques that are reported so far for determination of cefadroxil in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors would like to thanks Shree. Sureshadada Jain Institutes of Pharmaceutical Education and Reasearch, Jamner Maharashtra (India) for supporting the fulfillment of this work.

 

CONFLICT OF INTEREST:

Declared none

 

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Received on 30.06.2017          Accepted on 14.07.2017        

© Asian Pharma Press All Right Reserved

Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2018; 8(1): 58-61.

DOI: 10.5958/2231-5675.2018.00011.X